Molybdenum disulfide is a silver-black to black powder with a metallic luster, a greasy feeling to the touch, and odorless. The chemical formula is MoS2 and the relative molecular weight is 160.07. Density 4.80g/cm3, melting point 2375â„ƒ, Mohs hardness 1.0-1.5, laser particle size 1-30Î¼m. Molybdenum disulfide is relatively stable in the air, does not react chemically with general metal surfaces, and does not corrode rubber materials. It slowly oxidizes at about 350Â°C in the air, and the color becomes lighter after oxidation.
Molybdenum disulfide crystal is a thin unit composed of three planar layers of sulfur, molybdenum, and sulfur. From the molecular structure diagram, each molybdenum disulfide crystal is composed of many molybdenum disulfide molecules. Each molybdenum disulfide molecular layer is divided into three layers. There are atomic layers: the middle layer is molybdenum atoms, the upper and lower layers are sulfur atomic layers, 6 sulfur atoms surround each molybdenum atom, the thickness of the unit layer is 6.25Ã…, and the distance between the layers is 12.3Ã…, extremely Easy to split between layers.
Molybdenum disulfide acts as a solid lubricant
The excellent lubricity of molybdenum disulfide is determined by its crystal structure. Molybdenum disulfide has a layered structure of hexagonal crystals. Its crystal is a thin unit composed of three planar layers of sulfur, molybdenum and sulfur. From the SEM image and molecular structure diagram, the thickness of the unit layer is 6.25Ã… and the thickness of the unit layer is 6.25Ã…. The distance between them is 12.3Ã…, and it is straightforward to split between layers; 1 Î¼m molybdenum disulfide particles can split 1,600 flakes, and the friction coefficient can be as low as 0.02. Molybdenum disulfide is a layered substance with a special-shaped structure. The bond energy within the layer is strong and can achieve the purpose of compressive resistance. The bond energy between layers is weak, easy to shear and lubricate, and the friction coefficient is small. Therefore, molybdenum disulfide is known as the “King of Solid Lubrication.”
Two-dimensional semiconductors with thousands of transistors emerge, data processing efficiency soars
On November 14, a two-dimensional semiconductor with thousands of transistors was released. According to the latest issue of “Nature Electronics,” researchers from the Ecole Polytechnique FÃ©dÃ©rale de Lausanne in Switzerland have proposed a memory processor based on molybdenum disulfide, which is dedicated to one of the basic operations in data processing: vector matrix multiplication. This kind of operation is ubiquitous in the implementation of digital signal processing and artificial intelligence models, and its efficiency improvement can save a lot of energy for the entire information and communication industry.
The new processor combines 1,024 elements onto a one-centimeter-square chip, with each component containing a 2D molybdenum disulfide transistor as well as a floating gate to store charge in its memory to control each transistor’s conductivity sex. Coupling processing and memory in this way fundamentally changes the way processors perform computations.
The researchers noted that by setting the conductivity of each transistor, they could apply a voltage to the processor and measure the output, performing simulated vector-matrix multiplication in one step.
The choice of molybdenum disulfide played a crucial role in the development of memory processors. Unlike silicon, the most widely used semiconductor in today’s computer processors, molybdenum disulfide forms a stable monolayer just three atoms thick that interacts only weakly with its surroundings. Its thinness offers the potential to produce extremely compact devices. In 2010, the research team created the first single molybdenum disulfide transistor using a single layer of material peeled off a crystal using Scotch tape.
The critical advancement from a single transistor to more than 1,000 transistors has been the quality of materials that can be deposited. After extensive process optimization, the team can now produce entire wafers evenly covered with a homogeneous layer of molybdenum disulfide. This allowed them to design integrated circuits on computers using industry-standard tools and convert those designs into physical circuits, opening the door to mass production.
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