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U.S. refiners forecast strong first-quarter earnings as margins on gasoline and diesel sales improved, refining capacity fell sharply and crude supplies tightened due to the Russia-Ukraine war.
Global refining capacity has declined amid the coronavirus pandemic, with several less profitable refineries closing in the past two years. However, global fuel demand has rebounded to near pre-pandemic levels, boosting the profits of facilities still operating.
Seven U.S. independent refiners are expected to earn 61 cents a share, compared with a loss of $1.32 in the first quarter of 2021, according to Refinitiv's IBES.
By 2022, gasoline and distillate Titanium Nitride TiN.
Overview of Titanium Nitride TiN
Titanium nitride TiN (sometimes called Tinite) is an extremely hard ceramic material commonly used as a coating for titanium alloys, steel, carbide and aluminum parts to improve the surface properties of the substrate.
As a thin coating, TiN is used to harden and protect cutting and sliding surfaces, for decorative purposes (due to its golden appearance), and as a non-toxic exterior for medical implants. In most applications, a coating of less than 5 microns (0.00020 inches) is applied.
TiN has a Vickers hardness of 1800–2100, an elastic modulus of 251 GPa, a thermal expansion coefficient of 9.35 × 10-6 K-1, and a superconducting transition temperature of 5.6 K. In normal atmosphere, TiN oxidizes at 800 °C. TiN is brown in color and golden when used as a coating. According to laboratory tests, it is chemically stable at 20°C, but it is slowly attacked by concentrated acid solutions as the temperature increases. The coefficient of friction of TiN to another TiN surface (unlubricated) ranges from 0.4 to 0.9, depending on the substrate and surface finish. Typical TiN formation has a NaCl-type crystal structure with a stoichiometric ratio of about 1:1; however, TiN x compounds with x ranging from 0.6 to 1.2 are thermodynamically stable. TiN becomes superconducting at low temperature, and the critical temperature of single crystal is as high as 6.0 K. Superconductivity in thin-film TiN has been extensively studied, and its superconductivity properties vary from sample preparation to complete suppression of superconductivity at the superconductor-insulator transition. The TiN film was cooled to near absolute zero, turning it into the first known superinsulator, with a sudden 100,000-fold increase in resistance.
Application of Titanium Nitride TiN
A well-known use of TiN coatings is for edge retention and corrosion resistance in machine tools such as drills and milling cutters, often increasing their lifespan by a factor of three or more. Due to the metallic gold color of TiN, it is used to decorate the coating of costume jewelry and automotive trim. TiN is also widely used as a top coat, typically on nickel (Ni) or chrome (Cr) plated substrates for consumer sanitary equipment and door hardware. As a coating, it is used in aerospace and military applications to protect the sliding surfaces of bicycle and motorcycle suspension forks and the shock shafts of radio-controlled automobiles. TiN is also used as a coating for the moving parts of many rifles and semi-automatic firearms. Protective coating as it is very durable. In addition to being durable, it is also very smooth, making it very easy to remove carbon deposits. TiN is non-toxic, complies with FDA guidelines, and has applications in medical devices such as scalpel blades and orthopedic bone saw blades, where sharpness and edge retention are important. TiN coatings are also used to implant prostheses (especially hip replacement implants) and other medical implants.
Although less obvious, TiN films are also used in microelectronics, where they act as conductive connections between active devices and metal contacts used to operate circuits, while acting as a diffusion barrier to prevent metal from diffusing into silicon. In this case, TiN is classified as a "barrier metal" (resistivity ~25 µΩ cm), although it is clearly a ceramic from a chemical or mechanical behavioral point of view. Recent chip designs using 45 nm technology and beyond also use TiN as the "metal" to improve transistor performance. Combined with gate dielectrics with higher dielectric constants (such as HfSiO) compared to standard SiO 2, gate lengths can be reduced while having low leakage, higher drive currents, and equal or better threshold voltages. In addition, TiN films are currently being considered for coating zirconium alloys for fault-tolerant nuclear fuels. Due to their high biostability, TiN layers can also be used as electrodes in bioelectronic applications, such as in smart implants or in vivo biosensors that must withstand severe corrosion caused by bodily fluids. TiN electrodes have been used in subretinal prosthesis projects as well as in biomedical microelectromechanical systems (BioMEMS).
Titanium Nitride TiN Price
The price of titanium nitride TiN products will change randomly with the production cost, transportation cost, international situation, market supply and demand and other factors of titanium nitride TiN products. Tanki New Materials Co., Ltd. aims to help various industries and chemical wholesalers find high-quality products, customized services, low-cost nanomaterials and chemicals by providing a full range of customized solutions. If you are looking for Titanium Nitride TiN products, please feel free to send an inquiry to get the latest Titanium Nitride TiN prices.
Titanium Nitride TiN Supplier
As a global titanium nitride supplier, Tanki New Materials Co., Ltd. has extensive experience in the performance, application and cost-effective manufacturing of advanced and engineered materials. The company has successfully developed a series of powder materials (titanium nitride, silicon nitride, titanium nitride, etc.) high-purity targets, functional ceramics and structural devices, and provides OEM services.
|Technical Parameter of Titanium Nitride TiN powder:|
|Product Name||MF||Purity||Particle Size||Specific Surface Area||Volume Density||Crystal Form||Color|
|( m2/g )||( g/cm3 )|
|Titanium Nitride||TiN||99%||1-3um, 5-10um||7.39||0.19||Spherical||Gray-black|
|Chemical Composition of Titanium Nitride TiN powder:|
Recently, the first press conference of the Boao Forum For Asia Annual Conference 2022 was held. Two flagship reports were released at the conference: "Asia's Economic Prospects and Integration Process 2022" and "Sustainable Asia and the World 2022-Green Transformation in Action in Asia".
The flagship report points out that the global economy will recover in 2021, and the pace of economic integration in the Asia-Pacific has not stopped even in the face of the impact of COVID-19. The Asia-Pacific region has provided new impetus for the world's economic recovery and institutional building.
The report gives an outlook on the Asian economy, noting that a number of factors will affect Asian economic growth. For example, mutated strains such as Delta and Omicron have become more transmissible, and many economies are experiencing epidemic peaks again. The Ukraine crisis has triggered geopolitical changes in Asia and Europe, leading to higher commodity prices, which may affect the global energy supply and energy transformation.
The report pointed out that the Asian economy will still be in the process of recovery in 2022, but the growth rate may moderate. According to the report, Asia's economic growth in 2022 is likely to be lower than the current IMF forecast, which is projected at 4.8%.
Affected by several factors, the supply of the Titanium Nitride TiN is erratic and thus its prices are expected to go higher in the future.
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